Thursday, August 27, 2020

Analyzing Itten’s Color Theory in Painting Free Essays

This article focuses on the theme about the seven shading contrast which is drawn by an incredible Swiss expressionist painter named Johannes Itten. Therefore, this paper would likewise render distinct consideration in breaking down and evaluating the utilization of shading in two unique canvases which are made by two particular specialists, using the said seven shading contrast done by Johannes Itten. The paper clutches the reason for looking into the specific use of shading in the artistic creations of Leonardo Da Vinci (Virgin of the Rocks) and Jan van Eyck (The Arnolfini Portrait) by methods for using the shading hypothesis of Itten. We will compose a custom paper test on Breaking down Itten’s Color Theory in Painting or on the other hand any comparative subject just for you Request Now The accompanying would be talked about: †¢ Understanding Leonardo Da Vinci’s Virgin of the Rocks †¢ Discussion on Jan van Eyk’s The Arnolfini Portrait †¢ The Virgin Rock and The Arnolfini Portrait At the finish of the paper, this would render positive data that would as needs be separate Leonardo Da Vinci’s (Virgin of the Rocks) and Jan van Eyck’s (The Arnolfini Portrait) as far as using hues in their artistic creations. Understanding Da Vinci’s The Virgin of the Rocks. Leonardo Da Vinci, as one of the extraordinary painters in the old history of painting, utilizes a methodology and system in utilizing shading for the â€Å"Virgin of the Rocks† and additionally once in a while alluded to as â€Å"Madonna of the Rocks† which portrays similar attributes of differentiation between the light and dim.. Consequently, as discernible and obvious in his work of art, Leonardo Da Vinci’s essential utilization of shading is set to give an image of masterful blend between the light and dull hues. Much the same as numerous extraordinary painters in his time, Da Vinci’s utilization of shading in his work of art is respected to be monochromatic, wherein he for the most part used different darker shades, grayer tones, and paler colors that render incredible detail recognizing the light and dark. In the said painting, Da Vinci’s utilization of light shading is explicitly arranged in giving clear subtleties of the face and position of the items and the environmental factors that plainly uncovers the shade of light and dim hues in the stones. At the end of the day, Leonardo Da Vinci’s fundamental utilization of light and dull hues in the composition is his own methodology in portraying the best possible introduction of the impacts of lighting in giving clearness and feeling to the visual. Along these lines, through this extensive perception, it tends to be said that Da Vinci’s utilization of shading in â€Å"Virgin of the Rocks† falls under the class of â€Å"contrast of light and dark† and â€Å"contrast of saturation† in Itten’s seven shading contrasts as his work of art is basically made out of light and dim hues which are as needs be and unobtrusively used to connote single delineation. Conversation on Jan van Eyk’s The Arnolfini Portrait according to the canvas and work of Jan van Eyck’s entitled â€Å"The Arnolfini Portrait,† which is likewise alluded to as â€Å"The Arnolfini Wedding† and â€Å"The Arnolfini Marriage,† the essential position and utilization of shading depicts a relative criticalness and incentive in arrangement of the artistic creation. Not at all like Leonardo Da Vinci’s â€Å"Virgin on the Rocks,† where he principally used light and dull hues, which came about to a monochromatic work of art, Jan van Eyck’s structure â€Å"The Arnolfini Portrait† is essentially loaded up with brilliant and gleaming hues, which convey a solitary objective of delineating the affluent way of life of â€Å"Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini,† the man who is with his significant other in the canvas. Jan van Eyck’s essential utilization of shading in the said painting is set to delineate life and draw an image of authenticity. Along these lines, van Eyck’s has utilized distinctive brilliant hues to introduce and improve the precision of life and genuine picture and fine subtleties of the family room where Giovanni Arnolfini and his significant other are standing. Likewise this, using brilliant and enthusiastic hues, Jan van Eyck can render clear subtleties in the work of art, for example, the shadow of Giovanni Arnolfini and his better half and the shade of light that originates from the window. The utilization of splendid hues likewise gives subtleties on the lighting and the beam of light originating all things considered, which goes through the window that ponders the half piece of the crystal fixture and through the essence of Giovanni Arnolfini and his significant other. Accordingly, Jan van Eyck’s utilization of shading for this work of art is classified as the complexity of supplements. Virgin of the Rocks and The Arnolfini Portrait Through an exhaustive investigation and appraisal of the two works of art, it is said that there are apparent and noticeable similitudes and contrasts as far as the utilization of shading. According to the similitudes of the two artworks, it is obvious that both of the painters, Leonardo Da Vinci and Jan van Eyck, have used hues so that it underpins their objective of delineating authenticity and nearness of life in their items in the artistic creation. Therefore, the two craftsman and their artistic creations are likewise furnished with the most appropriate hues in building up the nearness of lighting as well as the wellspring of iridescence so as to additionally feature authenticity and life. As it were, it very well may be said that the canvases and showstoppers of the two craftsmen contrast from one another as far as their particular utilization of specific kinds of hues. In constrast to the work of art of Leonardo Da Vinci’s â€Å"Virgin of the Rocks,† Jan van Eyck has used for the most part brilliant and gleaming sort of hues to have the option to feature authenticity and improve the veritable image of life in Arnolfini’s well off life and the magnificence of their lounge along with his significant other. Leonardo Da Vinci, then again, has principally used a blend of light and dull hues to introduce life and give subtleties of lighting in his work of art, which render and draw the fitting feelings of the picture. At long last, it very well may be said that the traditional compositions of Leonardo Da Vinci and Jan van Eyck, which are entitled â€Å"Virgin of the Rock† and â€Å"The Arnolfini Portrait† are indistinguishable so that these two craftsman have utilized hues to have the option to accomplish their fundamental imaginative objectives, which is that of delineating authenticity and placing more life into their works. Henceforth, the two artworks just contrast from one another as far as the specific hues that they use in its organization. As Leonarod Da Vinci has used a greater amount of the light and dull sorts of hues, Jan van Eyck has utilized generally brilliant and radiant mixes of shades to improve the nature of his canvas and accommodate the vivacious highlights of his delineation on the life Giovanni Arnolfini. Work Cited Itten’s Color Contrasts. Imaginative Commons License. Seen 12 March 2009 ;; Step by step instructions to refer to Analyzing Itten’s Color Theory in Painting, Papers

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Ways in Which Couples can Seek to Reduce Taxation Liabilities on Essay

Manners by which Couples can Seek to Reduce Taxation Liabilities on Investments and Savings - Essay Example This is additionally the situation for governments and foundations. So the inquiry is in this manner how such a budgetary security can be accomplished? The most evident response to this is by contributing. Contributing alludes to the purposeful and determined coordinating of assets into income creating exercises. Invariably not all people are naturally introduced to budgetary security. Accordingly they should thusly discover approaches to channel their funds with the end goal that they can develop altogether unto what's to come. Generally speculations are made straightforwardly out of investment funds; reserve funds out of close to home salary. The financial model for this relationship is given as I 0 f (s); s  f (y). This along these lines implies that speculations are an outcome of inevitable present utilization of individual pay. This may maybe be the subtle point to most youngsters looking at for guaranteed money related success without the penance of and discipline in regards to introduce utilization. After the setting up the cause of ventures, a need emerges to look at what the choosing and affecting components for speculations are. Business analysts present an immediate connection among speculations and the loan costs for the underlined security for example I  f (r). The two families and establishments will settle on their venture choices dependent on the normal pace of profits as communicated according to the overall loan fees in the market. Another impacting factor in venture assurance (both the sum and territory of speculation) is the hazard level related with the speculation. The Capital Asset Pricing Model hypothesizes that the normal returns for any benefit or venture is an element of the investor’s hazard resistance level as communicated through the variety in the acknowledged from anticipated returns inside the market. This implies the speculations have a hazard reward system where the investor’s resistance to showcase vulnerabi lities will essentially decide how much returns they will get from picked ventures. Thirdly, the expense treatment on speculation is likewise a significant determinant for venture adventures. Financial specialists might want to realize what level of their income from venture would be made good on out as assessment. The duty treatment on speculations made by singles, wedded couples and accomplices in common associations is extraordinary. Hence, this article looks at manners by which the expense commitment on speculations made by wedded couples or those in common associations in the United Kingdom can be diminished. Conversation Different sorts of ventures have distinctive assessment medicines ( This along these lines implies that the effect of any tax collection just as any assessment help will rely upon the specific conditions for the person of which are dependent upon future change without notice. These contemplations become progressively unpredictable in common orga nizations where a uniqueness in the sums earned or resources claimed turns into a test in settling on money related choices dependent on emotive sentiments. As indicated by British Laws on tax assessment, all couples (regardless of whether they are hitched or in common organizations or are living together) are burdened independently as people. Each expense paying individual in Britain is qualified for the initial segment of their pay liberated from charge. This is alluded to as an individual recompense. All earnings in overabundance of this sum are thusly dependent upon the candidate charge rules. The individual recompense relies upon the age of the individual and the complete degree of pay over the available period. In such manner, there are three degrees of individual stipend as appeared in the table beneath identifying with the present spending time frame 2012/2013: Personal pay Basic individual recompense (?) Adjusted total compensation limit (?) Age 64 and underneath 8,105 100, 000 Age 65-74

Friday, August 21, 2020

Educational Explanatory Essay Samples For Second Grade

Educational Explanatory Essay Samples For Second GradeStudents will be amazed at the great variety of explanatory essay samples in the educational resources section of the library. Some of these are for students in second grade, while others can help students in third or fourth grade. Since it is assumed that second graders will take some time to learn about the general rules of grammar and how they apply to their writing, it is understandable that these materials are kept relatively simple.This is because the Jones Method is still the norm in most schools. This is a structured way of teaching the rules and what is expected from the students as far as grammar is concerned. It is not uncommon for teachers to have some of these teaching methods and to use them throughout the year to reinforce the fundamentals taught in school.A student who has taken the Jones Method and has been successful in this manner will have no difficulty in providing appropriate answers to the many questions in the sample essays. The essays for children in second grade use very simple sentence structure, and the examples are easy to follow. However, that does not mean that they will not require the student to think about their sentences when they are reviewing them in class.Explanatory essay samples for children in second grade will not typically use the Jones Method, although there are a few exceptions. There are, however, many different types of grammar that are used in the sample essays, and even though these may be easy to find, the exact phrasing of the rule may be difficult to discover. The teacher is left to rely on the fact that the student knows the rule, and it is up to the student to find the phrasing of the rule that fits with the rest of the essay.Students who do not understand the grammatical details of the various points in the essays will not be able to accurately answer the questions posed by the teacher. This is something that should not be taken lightly. Astudent who is unsuccessful in understanding the major points in an essay is often times not prepared to write well on other subjects, such as art and science.The next step would be to have the student give examples and explanations of how they learned about the grammatical issues in the essay, and if so, how they can be applied to the different subject matters. This can be easily done in one of the examples found in the resource section of the book. The examples are quite clear and easy to follow, and the student will find them to be quite helpful in providing the needed explanations for the grammatical point.In addition to providing explanations for the grammar, it is also important to remind the students of all the examples and lessons in the lesson plans. In many cases, the students will forget about some of the examples in the lesson plans. That is why it is important to remind them of the lesson plans in order to make sure that they are doing everything in the lesson plans.Teaching material for second grade should not be overly complicated. Exhibiting the basics and providing explanations to get the student to understand the rest of the rules should be the key in helping a student to teach well. There are several websites that will provide these type of instructional materials, so there is nothing to lose in finding out which website you want to use.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Effective learning tool for education - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 33 Words: 9934 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Abstract The aim of this project is to implement an effective discussion tool by using six thinking hats model as the mechanism. There is a need to implement an effective learning tool for education in Hong Kong. Discuss tool is a kind of them. Although there are many discussion tool available in the web space, most of them are not developed for specific need especially education. In this project, we used the six thinking hats model as a mechanism in order to develop an effective online discussion tool. The six thinking hats model will use as a mechanism to facilitate the synchronous online discussion. By using this model, a collaborative learning assistance platform will be developed. In this project, we will show you why six thinking hats model is situation for student to learn and the author will also evaluate the proposing environment. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Effective learning tool for education" essay for you Create order Introduction There is a need to implement an effective learning tool for education in Hong Kong. Discuss tool is a kind of them. Although there are many discussion tools available in the web space, most of them are not developed for education. In this project, we develop an effective discussion tool by using the six thinking hats model as a mechanism. And in this section, we will go through some background information for this project. They are: specific definitions related to this project, the need e-learning resource and we will also use the Groupware and 3C Collaboration model to analysis online discussion tool. Background The need of e-learning resources in Hong Kong In October 2009, the Education Bureau of Hong Kong (2009)[1] released a report related to e-learning entitled Working Group on Textbooks and e-Learning Resources Development. The report stated that it is a global trend to use e-learning in education and there is a paradigm shift in school education from a text-based and teacher-centered mode to a more interactive and learner-centered mode. E-learning resources are encouraged to develop in order to enhance the learning effectiveness and provide the student a best mode to learn. The Secretary for Education has announced to launch a three-year Promoting e-learning pilot scheme in 20- 30 primary and secondary schools in the 2010/2011 school year. From the above, we can see there is a potential need to develop an effective learning tool for education in Hong Kong based on the government policy. What is Project Based Learning? Project Based learning (PBL) is a conceptual model that fit learning into projects. According to the definitions in the PBL handbook[2] for teachers, projects are consist of different tasks, based on challenging problems, that required students to design, problem-solving, decision making, or investigative activities; Meanwhile PBL allows the student to work relatively autonomously over extended periods of time; and eventually come up with a realistic products or presentations. The definition above is too abstract that cannot distinguish the different between projects and the instance of PBL. According to Thomas (2000)[3], he proposed five criteria that an instant of PBL project should have. They are centrality, driving question, constructive investigations, autonomy, and realism. PBL projects are central, not peripheral to the curriculum. Projects are the curriculum. The central teaching strategy in PBL is the project itself. Students learn the central concepts through projects. The centrality here means students learn things that are outside the curriculum are not examples of PBL. For example, illustrations, examples, additional practice, or practical applications like discussion is only an application of the projects, it is not considered to be the instance of PBL. PBL projects are focused on questions or problems that drive students to encounter (and struggle with) the central concepts and principles of a discipline. The project has to be about a driving question or an ill-defined problem which can motivate the student to learn. The question that student pursue, as well as the applications mentioned in the last paragraph, must be well combined in the service of an important intellectual purpose. Projects involve students in a constructive investigation. In order to be consider as a PBL project. Based on the PBL project, the students are able to transformation and construction of knowledge, making new understanding and skill by the PBL activities. If the project represents no difficulty to the student or it is about the already-learnt knowledge, the project is an exercise and it is not a PBL project. Projects are student-driven to some significant degree There is no expected, predetermined outcome for the PBL projects. It is because the PBL projects not like traditional instruction and projects, it is highly dependent to the students choice, organization and responsibility. Projects are realistic, not school-like. The PBL project give the student a feeling of authenticity, it is because of the topic, the tasks, the roles that the students play incorporates real-life challenges where the focus is on authentic (not simulated) problems or questions and where solutions have the potential to be implemented. Why Project Based Learning is effective According to George Lucas Educational Foundation (2001), the project based learning is effective for student as it is student driven, based on this situation, the attendance of the student will increase and thus increase their self-confidence, motivate them to participate in the project Secondly, research show that the academic gains equal to or better than those generated by other models, with students involved in projects taking greater responsibility for their own learning than during more traditional classroom activities (Boaler, 1997; SRI, 2000 ) Opportunities to develop complex skills, such as higher-order thinking, problem-solving, collaborating, and communicating (SRI, 2000) Access to a broader range of learning opportunities in the classroom, providing a strategy for engaging culturally diverse learners (Railsback, 2002) The problems There are many discussion tools available in the web space but seldom of them are designed for learning. Especially, they have addition feature to facilitate learning and at least, the usability of the online tools. For the learning facilitation, we would like to point out an effective discussion tools should help the participant to learn systematically. It is because, our brain was train to think inside the box (habit). This may limited our thought and make the discussion low affectivity. For the user usability, chat confusion is one of other problems for online discussion tools. Thirunarayanan, M. O. (2000)[4] suggests that there may be chat or conversation overlap in chat rooms as the student and instructor submit their responses at their unique pace. The participants may talk simultaneously and interrupt the other participant to follow the conversation. As the text area of the chat history is usually scrolled automatically, participant will have problem when they want to follow the comment of their initiated idea. Introduction to WebQuest Discussion as a learning approach in PBL Difficulties in discussion Aims The aim of this project is to build an integrate discussion tool to serve the needs of discussion task in WebQuest. We are going to used six thinking hats model as the mechanism in the discussion tool. This project will be an application to Web Quest system (Yeung 2009), while this project provides the student a platform to perform the discussion online based on project based learning and Yeungs system provided a platform for teacher to examine and manage the student project. Objective Objective To study the need of a discussion tool in e-learning To study the problem of exiting discussion tool To study the advantage of using a collaborative mechanism in PBL To review and examine the six thinking hats model as collaborative mechanism To redesign the model in order to fit the PBLS To develop a collaborative system for PBL In this section, we have gone through why there is a need to develop the e-learning resources in Hong Kong, it is because the research suggested that e-learning is good for the student and there is a trend to shift the teaching paradigm from correspondent learning to the peers learning . Hong Kong Government is totally supported the development of the e-learning resources. The students are also preferred to communicate online rather than communicate face to face. Communicate Mediated Communication and Computer Supported Collaborative learning is two main ideas in this project. In which, we have gone through the meaning of collaboration learning and the benefit of discussion as the learning activity. Report Organization Discussion as a learning strategy Askell-Willams and Lawson (2005)[5] has carried out a sophisticated study in teaching-learning discussion, they investigated the topic in different aspect, and the overview below is concluded by views of expertise in perspectives of psychological, sociological-constructivism and socio-linguists. There is a convincing reason that why discussion can serve as teaching and learning purpose. Dillon (1994)[6] stated that discussion can benefit in understanding of subject matter and resolution of issues related to the subject matter and its educational function; personal growth; and understanding of the value of group reflection and deliberation. Discussion is also a primary mechanism in students social transactions. The discussion itself served as a knowledge construction process. Social transactions in classroom can encourage student to put the knowledge into public domain, their reasoning and understands can then be the augmented, examined, elaborated, critiqued and related to the understandings of other people. Tobin, Tippins, and Gallard (1994)[7] also stated that the role of discussion provided a perfect platform for students to interact. Group interaction can provide a background in which student can be negotiate differences of opinion and seek agreement. It is more important that student can generate question and clarify understanding of specific content. Peers interaction can develop their ability to speak out, unafraid in order to take a proper stand. Based on the social cognitive perspective, discourse is also a primary deliberation tool for cognitive development. Nuthall (1997)[8] proposed that the potential benefit of discourse is transactional relationship between socio-cultural experience and self-organizational activities of the mind. Such activities of the mind are facilitated through discussion, Askell-Willams and Lawson showed us an example. If a student only acquires knowledge from a teacher, the student will only incorporate the single dependent perspective of the student-teacher relationship. If, on the other hand, the student acquires the knowledge in discussion in which different perspectives are described, explained and debated, the students performance will incorporate with a larger network of intertwined social and logical relationships. Problem rose from discussion Of course using discussion as a learning strategy is not suitable in every situation. Baxter, Woodward and Olson (2001)[9] showed that learning through class discussion might not effective for those low-achieving students, it is too difficult for them to involved in the discussion frequently and they may not have chance to speak out according to their shyness. Hollander (2002)[10] also noted that the organization of effective discussion at the individual level is not straightforward. Some student talk much while other talks little, the content of discussions can be awkward, there is no guarantee that the discussion content will be threaded in a coherent manner and not all students might have developed effective skill for contribution. It should also be noted that, leaving student discuss by their own will not engaging an effective discussion. Many students need specific instruction in order to know how to ask proper questions and give proper respond. Although the expertise may agree that discussion is a potential learning strategy for education, the key stockholder is the learner. If students knowledge is not enough to allow them to make effective use of a discussion, just like how to act effectively, how to ask proper questions and how to give proper respond, in this situation, the benefit of discussion as a learning approach are unlikely to be study. The value of collaboration and discussion in learning strategy for Online learning Environment From the above, we can see that how discussion benefit in students learning, here we will discuss the value of collaboration and discussion in learning strategy for Online Learning Environments (OLEs). Clark(2001)[11] stated that although it is achievable that learning with student interaction(passive learning), active learning through interaction including faculty acting as peers, guides, and moderators is generally consider more effective and well suited to OLEs. Discussion is not like the traditional instructor lecture method of education. Discussion and collaboration increased students involvement in which engages students actively participated in the learning process compare with the traditional instructor lecture teaching method, discussion are able promote the belonging of students achievement and satisfaction. Clark stated that, although the student and instructor remained as a key player in the discussion as learning strategy, there are still some different between the traditional classroom and OLEs. The diagram stated below illustrated their different. The Shift of Face to Face discussion to Computer Mediated Discussion From the last session, we can see that there is advantage of using OLEs in discussion than traditional classroom. How about student? Do they also want to use the electronic resources to learn and interact with each other? An and Frick (2006)[12] found that student preferred to use computer mediated communication (CMC) than face to face (F2F) as communication media under certain condition. Here are the reasons: Flexibility The location and time become an independent variable in CMC such that student can perform discussion on web anywhere. Interactivity increased The flexibility of digital learning platform also contributed to the second point, it will increase the interactivity between the students and as well as the Instructor. The learning style of the students is thus transform from independent learning to peers learning by the use of computer aids. Sutton (2001)[13] (in An and Frick, 2006) suggested that CMC has caused the shift from correspondence learning to social learning. Berge (1995)[14] (in An and Frick, 2006) has also suggested the interaction among instructors, students, contents and interface have been maximized in the online discussion and thus facilitate the constructive thinking. Allow student to learn by their own pace When compare to F2F, CMC provide student more time to respond the question. It allows student to analysis and reflect the question with enough time so that they can compose thoughtful responds. Student can thus learn by their own peak in CMC, they can also take control to their learning and interact with the peer in order to build knowledge. Overview of the Discussion Tool Synchronized and Asynchronous Discussion tool Discussion is definitely a common implementation for Computer Mediate Communication. Generally, online discussion tool can divided in to two types, they are synchronized and asynchronous discussion tool. And as educational platforms, the two distinct format of interaction impact differently. In this session, we are going to investigate the pros and cons of these discussion tools in learning. What is asynchronous discussion tool? According to Johnson(2006)[15], asynchronous instruction occurs in delayed time and does not require the simultaneous participation of student and teacher. The asynchronous instruction was used in distance education in the early year due to postal delays. The asynchronous voice conferencing are already proven useful in some instructional contexts, text-based asynchronous instruction are also widely used in the post-secondary education, it can also be considered as asynchronous online discussion. Johnson stated that educators has been investigate the efficiency of asynchronous online discussion, they reported that it can encouraging in-depth, more thoughtful discussion; communicating with temporally diverse students; holding ongoing discussions where archiving is required; and allowing all students to respond to a topic There are also potential limitations of the asynchronous discussion room. Student may not check the forum frequently, lack of spontaneous feedback may lead students feel isolated, it is necessary to spend more time in the discussion in order to make it mature. Dede and Kremer (1999)[16](in Johnson, 2006) conducted a survey to check the students preferences of asynchronous discussion tool. They found that the asynchronous discussion provided a more comprehensive interchange for them, but it required more time and provided less social interaction than synchronous chat. What is synchronous discussion tool? According to Johnson (2006), Synchronous instruction occurs in real time and requires the simultaneous participation of students and teacher. The synchronous instruction was used in the closed circuit television on university campus in the early year. Until 1980s, video-conferencing and interactive television connected remote classroom, in which, the synchronous discussion allow student to ask question and perform interaction in spontaneously, the educators start conduct study how synchronous discussion tool help student in learning. As you can see, synchronous communication tools allow multiple users communicate with each other at the same time using text messages, According to a report investigated by Branon Essex (2001)[17] (in Johnson, 2006) showed that synchronous chat tools are useful for holding virtual office hours, team decision-making, and brainstorming, community building, and dealing with technical issues. Spontaneous feedback can make student feel connected; student will not feel isolated in this situation, meanwhile, student are all actively participate in the discussion tool synchronously, not like asynchronous discussion tool, required student to login frequently to check for update. But there are still limitations for the synchronous discussion tool. It is difficult to implement synchronous discussion tool compare with asynchronous discussion tool. It is hard to get students online at the same time, and it is difficult in manage large-scale conversation. Lack of reflection time for student and it is demanding for the poor typist. Synchronous Versus asynchronous online discussion Educators are commonly agreed the learning outcome of asynchronous online discussion room is better the face-to-face discussion. But the limitations stated above (isolation and frequently participation) discourage them to use this mechanism alone. There lead to the trend of implementing synchronous chat tool, it is because synchronous chat can override those limitation, as it attempts to emulates face-to-face discussion. Using synchronous chat not only enhanced social transaction but also improve student learning outcome. Johnson(2006) suggested the best methodology is combining the synchronous and asynchronous chat tool in Online Learning Environment in order to get higher levels of student satisfaction and mastery of course requirements than implementation of either mode in isolation. Johnson stated that there is a survey supported student whos used both discussion tools are most likely to achieved the course requirement because using the both tools can maximized personal engagement in learning. Review on different discussion model Structured Academic Controversy The method was firstly introduced by David W. Johnson and Roger T. Johnson, they are the leading expert in cooperative learning. As titled, academic controversy is a structured discussion strategy by using controversy, in which, controversy means an individual has a different idea and that idea is incompatible with others idea, so two of them need to compromise in order to reach a common agreement. According to the Cooperate Learning Center, academic controversyuses the intellectual conflict to encourage student to reach higher achievement. It will also enhanced the quality of problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, reasoning, interpersonal relationships, and psychological health and well-being There are three goals which SAC are designed to help the to achieve. They are to gain a deeper understanding of an issue, to find common ground, and to make a decision based on evidence and logic The five procedures in SAC Step 1- Organizing Information and conclude Students are separate into two groups, one of them will receive materials which written in supportive side and the other receive material of the opposite side. The groups will discuss together to conclude main ideas for present. Step 2: Presenting And Advocating Positions Student will present their argument, each side have a limited time to contribute the groups ideas. After the presentation, the other side can have a minute to rebut. Step 3: Uncertainty Created By Being Challenged By Opposing Views After the rebuttal of each group, the two sides will be switched. Each of the group will receive material from their opposite side. The students are required to use their material and points they have learnt from the other side earlier to formulate points of the opposite view. Step 4: Epistemic Curiosity and Perspective Taking Students will put down their position and discuss the issue together; they are required to find points which they are agree with and disagree with based on their evidence from the argument in order to reach concurrence. If the group cannot find a consensus of the topic, they are advice to find a compromised procedure which they could use to resolve the disagreements. Step5: Re-conceptualizing, Synthesizing, and Integrating It is a sharing session, the whole class grouped together and discusses how the group worked as a team and how can SAC help them in understanding the issue. Limitation of SAC: Student may be prejudiced by first impressions, they may not able to change their mind even the evident are support the opposite idea. And thus, it is hard to reach consensus at the end of the process. As SAC involved rebuttal, student may thought they are personal attacked by the criticism if the others student are not handle the rebuttal properly. It is demanding for the low-achieving student to speak out in the group they may not have chance to speak out according to their shyness. Civil Conversation Model The model was firstly used by the Constitutional Rights Foundation for encourages student to analyst a text material. With the guidance of the team leader, groups member are encouraged to study a selected text material, they will get to know their own points of view in the discussion procedure and eventually build a shared knowledge within the group. The challenged text material is an essential step for discussion in Civil Conversation. The text should be in a proper length and the conversation will takes place with the students in a circle. The teacher usually acts as a facilitator. The aims of the facilitator are: identify the topic and main points in the text, list what they agree and disagree with in the text, and pose questions about the text they believe are worthy of discussion. The challenged text will organized as a worksheet and contains question which required student to answer. The questions are usually in the below format: What is the selection is about: What is the main points are: What do you agree with What do you disagree with A selected question for group discussion, the question should have no simple answer which can only use the materials as evidence. Debrief Questions What did you learn from the conversation? What did you find you had in common with other members of the group? For anyone not active in the conversation (those good listeners), what did you learn; what did you agree with; who said something that you would have said? The four procedures in CC Step 1- Selected a challenged text Divided students into group and set the time limit of the discussion Step 2- Ask for agreement and Disagreement Ask every member to contribute idea on agreement and disagreement (question 3 and 4). Members should carefully listens to others and contribute new ideas based on that. Step3- Discussion Then ask the entire group to respond to question 5 the predefined discussion question. They are required to jot down the issues raise and they can raise a new problem anytime.The conversation can then continue by discussing the questions raised. Step4: Sharing session It is a sharing session, the whole class grouped together and discusses how the group worked as a team and how can Civil Conversation model help them in understanding the issue. And ask students to return to the Reading Guide and answer questions 6 and 7. Step 5: Make enhancement Conclude the ideas by asking the student to advise ways to improve the model. If appropriate, add these suggestions to the conversation rules. Limitation Facilitator is essential in this model. Student needed guideline on how to make a good discussion. As the student usually asks for factual question of the article, it is only good for additional research. A good question should make student to think about an issue, take position and back it up with evidence. As you can see the quality of the discussion is mainly depended on the facilitator There is no specific guideline for student to follow while they are taking place to discuss the raised question in step 3. The free-style discussion may lead the discussion out-of -track. Civil Conversation Model are designed to analyst a selected material. It may not fitted the nature of Project Based Learning, in which, student are required to research on the topics and collected additional material by their selves. By doing their own research, they can have new ideas by reconstructing the material. Six Thinking Hats Model The Six Thinking Hats Model is a thinking/discussion strategy devised by Edward de Bono in 1994. The model suggested that human thinking was divided in 6 session and the model uses 6 different colors to represent each of them, It requires students to extend their way of thinking about a topic by wearing a range of different thinking hats: The Hats White hat thinking focuses on the information available and needed. Black hat thinking examines the difficulties and problems associated with a topic. Yellow hat thinking focuses on benefits and values. Red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions and feelings Green hat thinking requires imaginative, creative and lateral thinking about a topic. Blue hat thinking focuses on reflection, control and the need to manage the thinking process. The colors help students to visualize six separate modes of thinking and to convey something of the meaning of that thinking. It can be used by student in different ages, here are the 6 thinking hat model teaching materials for the primary school student and secondary school student. Procedure of using Six Thinking Hat Model: There is no parliamentary procedure for the six thinking hats model, the model can be fitted in individual thinking and it can also fit in group discussion. While using six thinking hat model in group discussion, usually, it required the group member to pick a color of hat and let them contribute their idea one by one. In this model, the blue hat is acted like a facilitator in the group. It aims to manage the thinking process and summarize the points contributed by their team member. Advantages: It allow student to think out of the box, not like SAC and CC, the six thinking hats model was a straight forward model to lead student to think the issue based on 6 different aspect. Not like SAC and CC, emotion is brought into the model other than focused in evident, it opens up an opportunity for creativity within Decision Making. Instructor is not necessary in 6 thinking hats model compare than Civil Conversation model, it is because student will take their own part as the blue hat controller, and instructor can just sit around and let the student drive the discussion by themselves. Not like SAC, by using six thinking hats model the student will not prejudiced by first impressions. It is because the six thinking hat model is not aimed for controversywhich required student to rebut for each other, it allows student to express their ideas altogether by role playing. By using this model, there is a directed way the leads the low-achieving student contribute in the discussion. Review on existing system Instructor Controlled Chat System(ICCS) ICCS (Thirunarayanan, 2000) [23] was proposed to let the instructor involve into the student discussion, it can fix the problem with chat confusion and overlap. He proposed two software enhancements in order to achieve the aim: Instructor mediated chat Instructors will have two windows on their monitor, one is the student discussion window and the other is the instructor control window. Each message raised from the student will send to the instructor window first before published to the other students, the instructor will choose the relevant question / response to publish. Students are only type and respond to the question until the instructor sends the message to the student window Instructor hints before the chat section The second point is to save short comments; questions and statement in the database before the chat session begin. Once the student is lack of idea, the instructor can make use of the pre-saved statements to ask question and remind students to stay focused on relevant topic. Potential problem of ICCS As the discussion flow is highly depended to the instructor, it will affect the smoothness of the discussion and make it ineffective. As the discussion material is censored by the instructor, the quality of the discussion will highly depends on the quality of the instructor The less attention paid by the learner as they can rely on the instructor comment or instruction. The workload of the instructor will be increased as there may have many discussion groups in a class. Mediated chat The mediated chat (Hugo, Pimentel, Lucena, 2006)[24] was designed to avoid Message Overload. According to the authors, message overload refers to many messages from the participants are being display at once. Mediated chat uses the computer mediated channel to solve the problem. In mediated chat, the student message will first send to the chat server and queue. The chat server will collect all the messages and publish them to the dialog window one by one. The student are able to see a queue list in the window, they are able to see their place in the queue. If their idea are posted by the student in the priority place in the queue, the student are able to delete their submit message and compose a new one to send to the chat server. Potential problem of Mediated Chat The system can solve the message overload problem is a pretty effective way, however for the problem of facilitating the effectiveness of the discussion. There are some potential problems in it: With this method it can lower the burden of the instructor but there are no aids to help student to think critically since they are without the help of the instructor. As the discussion flow is highly dependent on the chat server, there is no way to quit or change the place of the queue. CSCL environment for Six Thinking hats Discussion Tamura, Shuichi (2007)[25] proposed a scenario-based asynchronous discussion environment by using the six thinking hat model. In which, the student are put on a specific hat altogether and contribute idea for this colored hat. After the first hat session, a facilitator will move the whole group to the group review section (illustrated in figure5) and it will further move to other hat section onward. For the Group review, each student will criticized other learners statement, and there is a facilitator to control the critic. The reason of the priority of the hat color: RedWhileGreenYellowBlack and Blue is because: Red Hat: Emotion hat, it is easy for the learner to state his personal opinion even they are not familiar with the six thinking hat method. White Hat: The hat of fact, It provided the student fundamental information to discuss. Green hat Yellow hat Black hat: These hats used to contribute ideas and standing point to the discussion, it is a good way to put it after the emotion hat and the hat of fact. Blue hat: Using blue hat as a summarized hat. It is the best way to put it at last. The summary of the Six Thinking hats Discussion The discussion tool utilizes the six thinking hats model, in which, it provided a platform for parallel thinking. And thus it fulfilled the five advantages we suggested in the last section. The hat sequence is logical. Which make the red hat at the first, white hat follows and the blue hat at the end. Tamura, Shuichi (2006) have examined their model uses questionnaire, they found this system can contribute to the various viewpoint for a given topic and provide the easiness to sum up. There are some points we can take from this system: It is a good way to let the student to contribute idea altogether (all student contribute to a hat one by one) at the very beginning. It can force to student to think in different direction at least once. But we believe that it is better to stick one student a particular role after the first cycle. It is because the group may be ignored some minor idea during the later discussion (e.g. feeling). If we stick a student to a particular role after the first cycle. The problem will be fixed. (Details flow will be explained in next chapter) The system should enable some features to facilitate the student to summarized ideas. Meanwhile, it is also a important point to enable feature to facilitate student to take up their specific role. A combined solution In this chapter, we went through the reason why discussion is an effective strategy for learning, it is because discussion is a primary mechanism in students social transactions and it can consider as a knowledge construction process. Using discussion as a learning strategy is not effective for those low-achieving student, they may not get enough opportunity to speak out. Meanwhile, student may not develop an effective skill for discussion, just like how to act effectively, how to ask proper questions and how to give proper respond. For this limitation, a straight forward discussion algorithm is needed to direct the student to think in different directions. It is necessary to develop an integrated discussion platform which synchronous and asynchronous discussion platform is included. It is because combining the synchronous and asynchronous chat tool in Online Learning Environment can get higher levels of student satisfaction and mastery of course requirements than implementation of either mode in isolation. Based on the aims for Project Based Learning, the integrated tool should not be highly dependent by the Instructor. It is because PBL project is student driven, instructor should side aside and give minimum guideline in order to let student making new understanding from their investigation. Using Six Thinking Hats Model as the mechanism for discussion In this section, we will show you why six thinking hats model discussion tool can satisfy as a mechanism for student to learning and how the model can fit in this project. Introduction to Six thinking hats Six Thinking Hats is a thinking strategy proposed by Dr Edward de Bono in 1985. Within 15 years, the model was widespread in the Europe and America. Research has proved that the thinking model is useful for the education and even benefit for children in kindergarten (de Bono consulting, 2009)[26]. The figure3 and 4 provide some question for different level students; it is a teaching material aims to help the student to use the six thinking hats model. Dr Edward de Bono[27] proposed that we can divide the thinking of human in six regions, they are[28]: The White Hat The White Hat calls for information known or needed, it is the natural fact of the situation. The Red Hat The Red Hat signifies emotions, feelings, hunches and intuition. The Black Hat The Black Hat is judgment the devils advocate or why something may not work, meanwhile, it is an important hat to warn and show alert. The Yellow Hat The Yellow Hat symbolizes brightness and optimism, it will contribute positive idea. The Green Hat The Green Hat focuses on creativity: the possibilities, alternatives and new ideas. The Blue Hat The Blue Hat is used to manage the thinking process. It is the control of the whole process. Dr de Bono believed with a systematic (parallel) thinking, it is possible to have an efficient solution through thinking or discussion. Parallel thinking is a key concept in the model. Dr De Bono suggested that argument cannot contribute to the effective discussion, even the worst, the group may waste for arguing to each other. Systematic thinking helps student to look problem in a parallel way and looked into the problems one by one and help the group to reach the common agreement. Teaching material for six thinking hats model for primary and secondary student (English Learning Area, 2007)[29] How does six thinking Hats suitable for learning? With the systematic discussion sequence, student can learn from listening rather than arguing. The colored hat can easily help student to separate their thinking and compose relative thinking to the specific hat. The whole thinking progress is based on role-playing; one of the limitations of thinking is self-defense and resulted in most of practical error in thinking. While we take up role, it allows us to express ourselves freely as our ego is sheltered by the hat. It is important for the shy students; they are freely talked about their ideas during the role play section. Learning through rules of game. People are very good to learn the rules of game, especially the children. It is easily to teach children and student to adapt this model to think. For the six colored hat, the student is forced to think the same problem in different directions. It is an advantage as there may have a specific thinking habit for one own, while participated in six thinking hats model, there is a directive attention to drive the student to think outside of their box. The red hat is also an important element in the design. It is because people usually ignore their feeling in making decision. How Six Thinking Hat Model fit in this project In the last chapters, we noted some important points for an effective discussion platform. A combined solution should Have straight forward flow to engage the student to think in different directions. Allow even contribution for every student, leading the low-achieving student has opportunity to share idea. Combine the synchronous and asynchronous chat tool in an integrated discussion platform Not dependent on the instructor and let student drive their own discussion Using Six thinking hats model can alleviating the question above, it is because: The student is forced to think the same issue in different directions. Follow by the six different colors, there is a directive attention to drive the student to think outside of their box. The six thinking hat model is based on role playing, when student take up role, it allows students to express freely as their ego is sheltered by the hat. It is important for the low-achieving students; they can talk freely during the role play section. As there is no parliamentary procedure for the six thinking hats model, the model can be fitted in individual thinking and it can also fit in group discussion. We can allow student to express their ideas for all six direction (the six colors of hats) in asynchronous platform before taking place in the synchronous discussion. It is good for student to think in different direction at least once before synchronous discussion. In the synchronous discussion, it is better to stick student in their particular role. It is because the group may be ignored some minor idea during the later discussion (e.g. feeling). If we stick a student to a particular role in the synchronous discussion. The problem will be fixed. Instructor is not necessary in six thinking hats model, it is because one of the group member will take their own part as the blue hat controller, and instructor can just sit around and let the student drive the discussion by themselves. Overview of the Proposed System The integrated discussion tools provide a wide range of function to encourage student to contribute ideas. Based on the review from last chapter, the system will be derived into four modules in order to reach the goal. They are, Asynchronous Discussion System (ADS), Synchronous Discussion System (SDS),Peer Summarizing System (PSS) and Individual Debriefing System (IDS). The four subsystems stated above can be considered as four tasks in this project. The students are required to complete all the phases. These modules provided functions to facilitate student contribute ideas by using the six thinking hat model as the mechanism. Features like material searching, ideas adding, points editing, chat sequencing managing and points summarizing are available in the proposed system in order to facilitate the discussion. The role of the stockholders The role of the instructor The teachers should firstly derive the class in group of six. And assign an ill-defined problem for each group, the problem should be clear and it is necessary to drive students to encounter (and struggle with) the central concepts and principles of the curriculum, in which the question should motivate the student to learn. A good discussion questions will ask students to think about an issue, to take a position and required to back it with evidence. The role of the students As mentioned above, the students should finish all the 4 modules in order to complete the whole discussion. In which, the first module -Asynchronous Discussion System and the last module- Individual Debriefing System are not required real time respond, student contribute idea asynchronously with their group members. For the second module Synchronous Discussion System and the third module Peer Summarizing System are required students contribute spontaneously. Here we will show you the detailed features of each platform and stages. The features of Announcement Platform After login, the student will redirect to the Announcement Platform. The platform uses to show available project. The platform shows the outline of the project in order to let student realize the status of the project, it also provided a link for student to enter the asynchronous and synchronous discussion platform. Asynchronous Discussion System The Asynchronous Discussion System uses to gather ideas before the synchronous discussion takes place, it is necessary to force the student to think in all directions before the next stage. The student can get into this system from Announcement Platform. There will be a form with six different fields, each field represent a different role (from the six hats), by filling the form, student are directed to think the issue in all of the six directions. Student can also view the form filled by other member in this platform, but they can only edit their own form. Synchronous Discussion Platform The synchronous Discussion Platform requires real time reaction and it is necessary for all the group members logged into the platform before it starts. In this stage, each of the students is needed to select a specific color of hats, representing a unique characteristic for contributing point in this stage. After entered in the Synchronous Discussion System, the students are required to undergo the Role Selection process. After the role selection, the synchronous discussion starts with a default sequence and the sequence can be manually changed by the blue hat (as the discussion controller). The role selection The student can get in this stage from the link provided on the Announcement Platform. After login the student are required to select their own role for the discussion, they can put on one of the six hats they wanted to take part in. The system will only continues (the ok button will be disabled) if each role taken by one student. Linear discussion is one of main idea for this project. Based on this idea, the system was developed to control the discussion flow between the member. The system was developed to support two different flow, they are: The default flow and Manaul flow. The Default Discussion Flow: The students are going to contribute idea one by one in the following sequence: RedWhileGreenYellowBlack and Blue, after a cycle, it will restart from Red hat again. The default sequence is adopt form a similar platform CSCL environment for Six Thinking hats Discussion (Tamura, Shuichi[30]) which we have discussed in chapter 2. The following explained why we follow Tamura, Shuichi system: Red Hat: Emotion hat, it is easy for the learner to state his personal opinion even they are not familiar with the six thinking hat method. White Hat: The hat of fact, It provided the student fundamental information to discuss. Green hat Yellow hat Black hat: These hats used to contribute ideas and standing point to the discussion, it is a good way to put it after the emotion hat and the hat of fact. Blue hat: Using blue hat as a summarized hat. It is the best way to put it at last. In order to simulate the face to face discussion, there is a possible chances that member would like to stop the default flow and raise priority question in the discussion. In which, our system allow the blue hat controller to Break the default role and assign the discussion sequence manually. The next section, we are going to discuss how the manually mode works. The Manual Discussion Flow: The manual discussion flow makes the discussion become flexible, it allows the student speak with priority. Blue hat as the discussion controller can break the default sequence and assign specific hat to speak. The blue hat can resume the manual flow back to default flow by using button in the features panel. Additional Features to facilitate discussion In order to simulate the face-to-face discussion, it is necessary to develop additional functions to smooth the discussion procedure. All the panel of the additional features are group on a right hand side In this project, the following features will be used to facitlitate the discussion. Peer private chat room An off-record peer chat section are required in the system. The student can send message to the others by using this platform without control. It is noted that the private chatroom is developed to smooth the discussion process, the private chat history will not be examinated. Google search bar Adopt from Google Ajax search API, a google search bar will embed in the system, facilitate student to search information. Hand Raisng platform This platform are developed for getting attention from the blue hat. The student can raise hand if they would like to contribute ideas with priorities. Flow Managing Panel As mentioned in the last section, the blue hat as the controller can break the default discussion flow, a panel will be developed for the Blue hat to manage the flow. Once the student reach the agreement of the discussion, the Blue hat can end the Synchronize Discussion phase and auto-direct the group member to the summary phase. Peer Summary Platform This is the third stage of the discussion procedure. The students enter this stage right after finished stage 2- the Synchronous Discussion. The Blue Hat controller ended stage 2 and redirect all students to the summarizing platform. In this platform, the students summarize the previous discussion one by one. The students are able to add the statements and the points in this platform. Real time checks, next, peer chat enable completion same as previous, end redirect to next stages Independent Conclusion Platform Redirected to this, individual summary, debriefing. Debrief Questions What did you learn from the conversation? What did you find you had in common with other members of the group? For anyone not active in the conversation (those good listeners), what did you learn; what did you agree with; who said something that you would have said? Overview of the proposed System: Design of the Integrated Discussion Tool in Project Based Learning After discussed the function requirement of the four modules Asynchronous Discussion System (ADS), Synchronous Discussion System (SDS),Peer Summarizing System (PSS) and Individual Debriefing System (IDS) in the last chapter, we will going to show you our design of this project in order to achieve the requirement. In this chapter, we will discuss the system architecture, database design, high level design and the interface design of the system. Layered System Architecture The design of this project will use Model View Controller as a software design pattern. The MVC architecture is a well-known software design pattern that fit multi-tiered enterprise J2EE application. MVC is a common method to separate an application to a variety of tiers. The model composed by three important elements- Model, View and Controller. The View gets data from the Model and decided the presentation of the data for client to client, the presentation should change once there are changes in the model. The Controller acts as the agent between the view and the model, it receive the request from the client and translate the request to the model. The Model embedded the business logic of the system, it responsible in enterprise data processing. Figure 5-1 illustrated the relationship of the three elements. The model is suitable for this project as it is permit highly interaction in the system. By reducing the dependency of presentation, request processing and business logic, multiple views for different data sets can be executed at once because the independency of each layer. By isolating the layer, engineer can be benefited in reduction of code duplication, it make the maintenance and development much easier. Based on the MVC model, In this project, the Java Servlet acts as the controller in the system, it acts as the agent between the view- the client and the model business logic which connected to the MySQL database. Figure 5-2 illustrated Interaction of different component within the system. Design of the Database Here, we will show you the schema of our database design. The database is mainly used for stored the discussion record for teacher assessment. Apart from the discussion history, the database will also store the personal information of user for access control. Figure 5-1 demonstrated the schema design of this project. Schema design Apart from the table above, we would like to clarify the relationship of the tables. Table Chatroom stored essential information for a discussion. It store project information (project ID towards table Project), assigned students student ID and date of creation and expiration of the discussion room. Table Role stored the student-role mapping for specified chatroom in Synchronous Discussion System, the table will be updated after the role selection section in SDS. Table Message stored the chat history for SDS; system will get the student role from table Role before updating table Message. High Level Design In this section, we will show you the high level design of the system. It will start from showing the design of each component (JSP pages, Servlet and Java Class), after that, we will show you how we use this component in the different modules. Overview of System component In this section we will show you the overview of the system component, we separate the component in three category based on the MVC model. Component for presentation Here is the page which designed for display and manages presentation to clients. The page will use to post html request to the controller layer which we will discussion in the next section. Interface Design The Design of the Four subsystem in Integrated Discussion tool In this session, we present the interface design of each module in order to achieve the feature we have discussion in the last Chapter. They four subsystem are, Asynchronous Discussion System (ADS), Synchronous Discussion System (SDS),Peer Summarizing System (PSS) and Individual Debriefing System (IDS). The Asynchronous Discussion System In the ADS, Student The Synchronous Discussion System In the SDS module, we use the 3C Collaborative model as a technical template to support our system design. There are three essential elements must be included in an discussion tool, an area for text-typing, an area for showing the participant list and an area for showing the chat history. Researchers often use the 3C Collaboration Model to analyze the collaboration tool. The 3C Collaboration model was first introduced by Ellis, Gibbs and Rein (1991)[32]. The model state that in order to collaborate, member in the group should communicate, coordinate and cooperate to reach the common goal. The three elements are very useful to illustrate the effectiveness of a groupware. Figure 1 illustrates each element in the 3C collaborative model. Fuks, Pimentel and Lucena (2006)[33] have concluded the model as below: Communication: Communication [to make common] + action means to act together in order to reach the common goal. Coordination: Co [together] + ordinate [order] + action means to organize or arrange the member of the group appropriately in order to ease the agreement through negotiation. Cooperation: Co + operate [operate] + action, means the actions of operating together. Members of the group act in conjunction on shared objects within a shared space to perform tasks defined and organized during coordination. There are three elements- an area for text-typing, an area for showing the participant list and an area for showing the chat history in the Synchronous Discussion System fulfilled the 3C Collaboration model. The text-typing area enables the participant to communicate with each other; the participant list area provided coordinative support for the group member and the area of the chat record provided support for group cooperation. Implementation of the Integrated Discussion Tool in Project Based Learning After discussed the design of the system, we are going to discussion the technical issue in this chapter, first, we will show you the system environment in this project. System environment Operating System Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition Java Source Level J2EE Web Server Database Management System Client Environment Chrome Review on the Integrated Technology In this project, we used Java Java SQL AJAX AJAX = Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is not a new programming language, but a new way to use existing standards. AJAX is the art of exchanging data with a server, and update parts of a web page without reloading the whole page. AJAX is about updating parts of a web page, without reloading the whole page. What You Should Already Know Before you continue you should have a basic understanding of the following: HTML / XHTML CSS JavaScript / DOM If you want to study these subjects first, find the tutorials on ourHome page. What is AJAX? AJAX = Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is a technique for creating fast and dynamic web pages. AJAX allows web pages to be updated asynchronously by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes. This means that it is possible to update parts of a web page, without reloading the whole page. Classic web pages, (which do not use AJAX) must reload the entire page if the content should change. Examples of applications using AJAX: Google Maps, Gmail, Youtube, and Facebook tabs. How AJAX Works AJAX is Based on Internet Standards AJAX is based on internet standards, and uses a combination of: XMLHttpRequest object (to exchange data asynchronously with a server) JavaScript/DOM (to display/interact with the information) CSS (to style the data) XML (often used as the format for transferring data) AJAX applications are browser- and platform-independent! Google Suggest AJAX was made popular in 2005 by Google, with Google Suggest. Google Suggestis using AJAX to create a very dynamic web interface: When you start typing in Googles search box, a JavaScript sends the letters off to a server and the server returns a list of suggestions. Start Using AJAX Today AJAX is based on existing standards. These standards have been used by developers for several years. Read our next chapters to see how it works! 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(1994). Research on instructional strategies for teaching science. In D.L. Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of research on science teaching and learning. New York: Macmillan, pp. 45-93. Nuthall, G. (1997). Understanding student thinking and learning in the classroom. In B.J.Biddle, T.L. Good, I. Goodson (Eds.), International handbook of teachers and teaching (Vol. 2) Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 681-768. Baxter, J.A., Woodward, J. Olson, D. (2001). Effects of reform-based mathematics instruction on low achievers in five third-grade classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 101, 529-549. Hollander, J.A. (2002). Learning to discuss: Strategies for improving the quality of class discussion. Teaching Sociology, 30, 317-327. Clark, J.(2001). Stimulating collaboration and discussion in online. learning environments Internet and Higher Education, 4 119-124 An, Y.-J., and Frick, T. (2006). Student perceptions of asynchronous computer-mediated communication in face-to-face courses.Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(2), article 5. [13] Sutton, L. A. (2001). The principle of vicarious interaction in computer-mediated communications .International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 7(3), 223-242. Berge, Z. L. (1995). Facilitating computer conferencing: Recommendations from the field. Educational Technology, 15(1), 22-30. Johnson., G. M.(2006).Synchronous and Asynchronous Text-Based CMC in Educational Contexts: A Review of Recent Research. TechTrends, 50(4), 46- 53 Dede, C., Kremer, A. (1999). Increasing students participation via multiple interactive media. Inventio, 1. Retrieved March 1, 2005, from Branon, R. F., Essex, C. (2001). Synchronous and asynchronous communication tools in distance education: A survey of instructors. TechTrends, 45, 36-42. The Center for Education in Law and Democracy. Discussing Controversial Issues: Structured Academic Controversy. Retrieved 5 Jan, 2010, from the website of The Center for Education in Law and Democracy at Structured Academic Controversy. Retrieved 5 Jan, 2010, at Johnson, R. T., Johnson, R. W..Academic Controversy. Cooperative Learning Center at University of Minnesota. Retrieved the website of Cooperative Learning Center at The Center for Education in Law and Democracy. Discussing Controversial Issues: Civil Conversation. Retrieved 5 Jan, 2010, from the website of The Center for Education in Law and Democracy at Constitutional Rights Foundation (1997).Conducting a Civil Conversation in the Classroom. Retrieved 5 Jan, 2010, from the website of Constitutional Rights Foundation at Thirunarayanan, M. O. (2000). Cutting Down on Chat Confusion. Retrieved 5 Oct 2009, from website Ubiquity at Hugo, F., Pimentel, M., Lucena, C. J. (2006) R-U-Typing-2-Me? Evolving a chat tool to increase understanding in learning activities. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. 1(1), 117-142 Tamura, Y. Furukawa, S.(2007). CSCL Environment for Six Thinking Hats Discussion. In B. Apolloni et al. (Eds). KES 2007/ WIRN 2007, Part III, LNAI 4694. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 583-589. Six Thinking Hats. From Edward de Bono. Retrieved 15Oct 2009, from website of de Bono Consulting at de Bono, E(1999). Six Thinking HatsÂÂ ®. British: Penguin Books De Bono thinking systems. Six thinking hats. Retrieved on 10 Sep 09 at English Learning Area (2007). Summary of Six Thinking Hats. Retrieved 25 May 2009. From web site English Learning Area at Tamura, Y. Furukawa, S.(2007). CSCL Environment for Six Thinking Hats Discussion. In B. Apolloni et al. (Eds). KES 2007/ WIRN 2007, Part III, LNAI 4694. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 583-589. The illustrated MVC diagram. Retrived on 3April 2010 from website Oracle at Ellis, C. A., Gibbs, S.J., Rein, G. L. (1991). Groupware: Some issues and experiences. Communications of the ACM, 34(1), 38-58. Fuks H., Pimentel, M., Lucena, C. J. P. (2006). R-U-Typing-2-Me? Evolving a chat tool to increase understanding in learning activities. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 1(1), 117-142. Fuks H., Pimentel, M., Lucena, C. J. P. (2006). R-U-Typing-2-Me? Evolving a chat tool to increase understanding in learning activities. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 1(1), 117-142.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Should Sex Trafficking Be Legalized - 1644 Words

Even though nearly everyone wants to have sex, not everyone has someone who wants to have sex with them. Lack of sex is hardly deadly, the urge for sex for some is just as strong as the drive to eat or drink. Just like humans learned how to trade for food and beverages, they learned how to trade for sex. Prostitution is known for being the world s oldest profession, but in several ways the trading of sex is a mystery, mostly in the United States, where sex trade is one of the country s greatest unregulated industries. In Sweden they take a different approach on prostitution; Sweden instead of making the selling of sex illegal, outlawed the buying of I which targeted the people buying it instead of the prostitutes themselves. Studies†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Different cultures have seen it as godly, diabolic and everywhere in between.†(Hobbs) However, not counting the public’s opinion, it has always been present in some way or another. According to most dicti onaries the actual definition of prostitution is â€Å"The practice or occupation of engaging in sexual activity with someone for payments,† (Webster) Most prostitutes get sucked into this at a very young age and were usually raised in a community that has prostitutes in it. Prostitution usually occurs in cities and is illegal in every state in America besides for Nevada because of Las Vegas being an extremely toured area in the United States. Prostitution is an occupation that is harmful to the body, physically and mentally on many levels. Prostitution, in itself, is a form of violence against women in a traumatizing way; there is the psychological and emotional harm of being sexually materialize, which also leads to men thinking objectifying women is tolerable. â€Å"One study found that while there is more physical violence in street, as distinct from, brothel prostitution, there is no difference in the psychological trauma. The psychological damage is intrinsic to the act of prostitution.†(Doezema) Prostitution is an action that many women try to avoid because of the harmful thoughts and physical damage to the body. â€Å"Anti-prostitution feminists hold that prostitution is a form of exploitation of women and male dominance over women, and a practice which is the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Social Impact of Cell Phones Essay - 1465 Words

In April of 1973, a man named Martin Cooper altered the way of communication for the rest of his days and many years to come. He possessed a dream that would better the way we conversed with one another from a distance. Back in those times, the closest thing to â€Å"cellular technology† was a car phone made by the ATA Company but, Martin and his determined Motorola group yearned higher heights and deeper depths for communication- and thus the birth of the first cell phone was in process. Cooper wanted to exceed the limitations of just simple â€Å"car conversation†. After consistent tedious hours of production, lasting a several month long period of building, critiquing, and finalizing, the first cell phone was born. The first mobile device was†¦show more content†¦The more desirable the cell phone became from the bonus features added to it, the more popular it became and its increased popularity after a while had half of the nation owning one. With featured-f illed cell phones that are out nowadays with its size being so convenient to have anywhere, anytime, and anyplace, we lessen the need for anything else except the essentials such as food, water, and shelter. That attachment to a device that seems so necessary and convenient thus creates an unselfconscious bond and connection with it that Davis 3 can change us socially. According to the online encyclopedia, social change is defined as something that alters mechanisms within a social structure, characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behavior, social organizations, or value systems. That definition defines humans being as the â€Å"altered mechanisms† that are changed by a change in something around them- such as the cell phones creation. â€Å"The widespread adoption of the cell phone as a tool of communication and entertainment has revolutionized society, redefining patterns of social contact and relationships among individuals. Overall, the cell phone has transformed daily life of individuals to such an extent that it can be thought of as an agent of social change† (Sadat Nurullah). That leaves the ponderous unanswered question of how?Show MoreRelatedVarious Social Impacts of Cell Phones2048 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿Cell Phone and Its Various Social Impacts Present day information era has given lots of freedoms to the citizens, which was not probable without the arrival of this age. The users of Information Systems have willingly available information, for example, full Encyclopedia Britannica in one CD with all types of sÐ µarch fÐ µaturÐ µs is availablÐ µ, pointing towards corrÐ µct information within thÐ µ right timÐ µ. Picture doing this with the book version of the Encyclopedia, sieving through several pagÐ µs lookingRead MoreEssay about The Social Impact of Cell Phones931 Words   |  4 Pagestoday’s world the vast majority of the population owns a cell phone. Cell phones are a huge part of people’s everyday lives. Since the 1940’s when mobile phones became available for automobiles, phone companies have made huge strides in making mobile phones more efficient, much smaller, and more available for anyone to use. There was a time where only people of wealth had these types of mobile phones. Now people from all social classes own a cell phone. They are extremely convenient and have the abilityRead MoreEssay on The Impact of Cell Phone Usage on Our Social Life1590 Words   |  7 PagesThere are more cell phones than residents in Britain (, 2007). The first cell phone was invented by Dr. Martin Cooper and John F Mitchell in 1973 (, 2014). Cell phone use has escalated over the years. Not only does cell phone usage affect the character traits of a person and their ability to hold regular, face to face conversations, it also affects a person’s ability to have healthy, stable relationships. Cell phones have changed from an item of luxury to an everydayRead MoreThe Impact of Cell Phone Use on Social Networking and Development Among College Students5103 Words   |  21 PagesThe American Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences Journal (The AABSS Journal, 2011, Volume 15) THE IMPACT OF CELL PHONE USE ON SOCIAL NETWORKING AND DEVELOPMENT AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS ~ Mikiyasu Hakoama Shotaro Hakoyama Central Michigan University 989-774-3743 Abstract Cell phones have become increasingly popular in recent years. While people of various ages find cell phones convenient and useful, younger generations tend to appreciate them more and be more dependent on them. BasedRead MoreImpact of Cell Phone Uasage on Students Acedemic Performance, Social Relationship Ans Safety2584 Words   |  11 PagesIMPACT OF MOBILE PHONE’S USAGE ON STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMACE, SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP AND SAFETY. INTRODUCTION:- Since the commercialization of cellular phones technology, the use of this communication device has rapidly increased. This technology was first introduced by Motorola in the early 1980’s (Harman, Brittney A., 2011). Today, the global cellular phone market now stands at approximately 1.8 billion subscribers, and is forecasted to reach 3 billion by the end of 2010 (Reid and Reid, 2007)Read MoreMobile Phones And The Mobile Phone987 Words   |  4 PagesIn this day and age, it is almost impossible to not have a cell phone; the number of people who own a cell phone is growing every year. â€Å"At the end of 2011, there were almost 6 billion mobile subscriptions. That is a dramatic increase from 5.4 billion in 2010 and 4.7 billion mobile subscriptions in 2009† (International Tele - communications Union, 2011). With the introduction into society the cell phone established a convenient way to communicate between individuals, and they have also connectedRead MoreImportance Of Cell Phone Safety Essay1056 Words   |  5 PagesThe cell phone safety In spite of the fact that cell phones convey a few expediency and advantages to our lives, they additionally have some possibly unsafe impacts. Disclosure of cell phones has been one of the critical technological progress lately. A portion of these effects has contributed emphatically to our lives, yet at the same time, others have affected contrarily. The cell phones have had a noticeable effect on the social life of individuals. In any case, cell phones have accompaniedRead MoreCell Phone Use A Social Addiction939 Words   |  4 PagesToday’s society is a generation that is being raised on conveniences, and with this generation, cell phone use has exploded. Millions of people are obsessed with their cell phones and literally will not leave their house without it. People center everything they do around their cell phone. People are checking their text messages and social media day and night. They face time, tweet, Pinterest, Instagram, and Snapchat. Teens on their smartphones. Photo Credit Highwaystarz-Photography/iStock/GettyRead MoreEssay on Revolutionized Communication: The Cell Phone1612 Words   |  7 PagesRevolutionized Communication: The Cell Phone The emerging technologies of the century have greatly affected how people interact personally and professionally. From 1990 to 2010, mobile phone users grew from 12 million to over 4 billion worldwide; in fact, almost 90 percent of households in America have a mobile phone (Wortham). The creation of the mobile phone marked a new era for America and the world. Phones have evolved from the â€Å"bag phone† to the BlackBerry, and will forever change the way aRead MoreMaterialism in Society1161 Words   |  5 Pagesand 400 dollar Dolce Gabbana cell phones are across our nation. The cell phone has grown tremendously over the years in both technology and its appearance from the dorky huge box to a fashion statement. The invention of the cell phone has helped our country as well as others in many ways of communication such as: for business, family, and emergencies. However, people have become negatively addicted to cell phones and are abusing them. The cell phone has taken impact a nd has attracted those who are

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

love;war by Barlowgirl free essay sample

Barlowgirls new cd lovewar is an 11 track stop-and-make-you-think album worth picking up. lovewar is the soundtrack to the fight to show others love while being at war with mainstream culture and ideas. Filled with empowering yet challenging lyrics, its message is relevant and appreciated by fans of the all girl group. Most of whom share the same struggle. Power tracks such as Come alive, Running out of time and Time for you to go encourage listeners to stand up for what they believe in and not let others think for them. Beutiful ending is a slower song about laying down your selfishness for you own good. One ballad inperticular, Tears fall[feuturing the Fisk Jubilee singers] touches on the scars and lost lives of abortion. Its almost garenteed to make you to tears. But most of all it mourns the hearts that will never beat. lovewar is encouraging fresh andenergizing. We will write a custom essay sample on love;war by Barlowgirl or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Barlowgirl step up artistaclly, musically and lyrically for their previos projects. It just goes to show how much theyve grown in the last six years. After listening to this cd youll be left with this challenge: To live, to die and to war for the sake of love. I highly recommend both this band and this cd.